Archive

Archive for March, 2009

Present Simple verbs in Persian (Negative)

Making negative verbs in Present Simple is very easy.

What you have to is  add NE (ن) in the beginning of the verb.


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نمی خور م نمی خورم
نمی خور ی نمی خوری
نمی خور د نمی خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نمی خور یم نمی خوریم
نمی خور ید نمی خورید
نمی خور ند نمی خورند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
nemi xor am nemixoram
nemi xor i nemixori
nemi xor ad nemixorad
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
nemi xor im nemixorim
nemi xor id nemixorid
nemi xor and nemixorand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ imperative form: /benuš/
To see: /didan/ imperative form: /bebin/
To read: /xāndan/ imperative form: /bexān/
To say: /goftan/ imperative form: /begu/

Reading Comprehension

سلام. من جان هووارد هستم.
من 20 ساله هستم.
من ایرانی هستم، اما در لندن زندگی می کنم.
پدر و مادر من در فرانسه زندگی می کنند.
من مردم لندن را دوست دارم، ولی هوای آن را دوست ندارم.
من دانشجوی مهندسی هستم. من فکر می کنم لندن برای یک دانشجو شهر گرانی هست.


salām. man John Howard hastam.
man bist sāle hastam.
man irāni hastam, ammā dar Landan zendegi mikonam.
pedar va mādare man dar farānse zendegi mikonand.
man mardome Landan rā dust dāram, vali havāye ān ra dust nadaram.
man danešjuye mohandesi hasam. man fekr  mikonam Landan barāye yek danešju shahre gerāni hast.

Present Simple verbs in Persian

In order to generate a present simple verb, we are taking steps introduced in this lesson. Hence, we need to identify three elements which make a verb in this tense:

  1. Tense prefix (WHEN?)
  2. می /mi/

  3. Verb tense root (WHAT?)
  4. In most verbs, drop the letter ب and its following vowel /b[a]/ or /b[e]/ or /b[o]/from the beginning of imperative form*

    Example:

    Infinitive: To Eat /xordan/ خوردن

    Imperative: Eat /boxor/ بخور

    Present tense root: /xor/ خور → بخور

    * Almost all of imperative verbs start with /b/

  5. Person suffix

Introduced in this lesson


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور م می خورم
می خور ی می خوری
می خور د می خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور یم می خوریم
می خور ید می خورید
می خور ند می خورند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor am mixoram
mi xor i mixori
mi xor ad mixorad
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor im mixorim
mi xor id mixorid
mi xor and mixorand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ imperative form: /benuš/
To see: /didan/ imperative form: /bebin/
To read: /xāndan/ imperative form: /bexān/
To say: /goftan/ imperative form: /begu/

Introduction to Verbs in Persian

In Persian, any verb can be interpreted independent of other parts of the sentence. This means that if a verb is extracted from the sentence, it can answer three questions about the action:

  • WHEN?
  • WHAT?
  • WHO?

These questions are answered by three elements, which usually come in this order:

  • Tense prefix (can be absent)
  • Verb tense root
  • Person suffix:

(read from right to left)

Tense prefix + Verb tense root + person’s suffix

Tense prefix (WHEN?) [can be absent in some tenses]

This prefix is the same across each tense, regardless of the person for which the verb is used.

Verb tense root(WHAT?)

In Persian, you need to learn 2 forms of each verb:

  • Infinitive
  • Imperative

The root for different tenses (e.g. present simple, past perfect) can be easily generated from these two forms. This topic will be expanded in next lessons under each tense lesson.

Person suffix(WHO?)

You learned person suffixes for to-be verbs here. The person suffixes for other verbs are precisely the same as person suffixes for to be verbs, except for singular third person (he/she).

The person suffix for singular third person (he/she) is /d/. However, some tenses do not need any person suffix for singular third person (he/she). Hence the universal person suffix table will be as below:

مفرد تلفظ Used for
ـم /-am/ I
ـی /-i/ you [singular]
د یا -* /-d/ or /NONE/* he/she
جمع تلفظ Used for
ـیم /-im/ we
ـید /-id/ you [singular]
ـند /-and/ they

* in some tenses it is dropped, but in others it is /-d/

Vocabulary 3

واژه تلفظ معنی
اسم Listen /esm/ name
خوشوقتم Listen /xošvaqtam/ nice to see you
همین طور Listen /hamin tor/ too
من هم همین طور Listen /man ham hamintor/ me too
پدر Listen /pedar/ father
مادر Listen /mādar/ mother
پسر Listen /pesar/ boy/son
دختر Listen /doxtar/ girl/daughter
آقای Listen /āqāye/ Mr
خانم Listen /xanom/ Ms/Miss/Mrs
تو او را می شناسی؟ Listen /to u rā mišnāsi/ do you know him/her?
بله Listen /bale/ yes
خیر Listen /xeir/ no
نه Listen /na/ no
جالب Listen /jāleb/ interesting

Short Greeting 3

احوالپرسی کوتاه 3

آرش: سَلام. من آرش هستم. اسم تو چیست؟
احمد: سَلام. من احمد هستم

آرش: خوشوَقتم
احمد: من هم همین طور

آرش: تو پسر آقای دیبا هستی؟
احمد: بله. آقای دیبا پدر من هست. تو او را می شناسی؟

آرش: بله. آقای دیبا معلم من بود.
احمد: جالبه

Audio clip: Adobe Flash Player (version 9 or above) is required to play this audio clip. Download the latest version here. You also need to have JavaScript enabled in your browser.

Conversation 3

Ārash: salām. man Āraš hastam. esme to čist?
Ahmd: salām. man Ahmad hastam.

Ārash: xošvaqtam
Ahmd: man ham hamintor

Ārash: to pesare āqāye Dibā hasti?
Ahmd: bale. āqāye Dibā pedare man hast. to u ra mišnāsi?

Ārash: bale. āqāye Dibā mo’alleme man bud.
Ahmd: jālebe.

I am fine

In this lesson, we learn how to say: “I am fine” and also you are fine, he is fine, etc.

مفرد تلفظ Used for
من خوب هستم /man xub hastam/ I am fine
تو خوب هستی /to xub hasti/ you are fine [singular]
او خوب هست /u xub hast/ he/she is fine
جمع تلفظ Used for
ما خوب هستیم /mā xub hastim/ we are fine
شما خوب هستـید /šomā xub hastid/ you are fine [plural]
ایشان خوب هستـند /išān xub hastand/ they are fine

In colloquial Persian, it is common to drop /hast/ and join the adjective person’s suffix together:

مفرد تلفظ Used for
من خوبم /man xubam/ I am fine
تو خوبی /to xubi/ you are fine [singular]
او خوب هست * /u xub hast/ * he/she is fine
جمع تلفظ Used for
ما خوبیم /mā xubim/ we are fine
شما خوبـید /šomā xubid/ you are fine [plural]
ایشان خوبـند /išān xuband/ they are fine

to be Verb (Negative)

The formula for negative to be verb is similar to what we learned in this post:

Negative Present Tense root
+ person’s suffix

Negative Present tense root of to be verb is:

نیست /nist/

Negative To be verbs (simple present tense)

بن مضارع پسوند فعل Verb formula Definition
نیستـ ـم نیستم /nistam/ /nist/+/am/ I am not
نیستـ ـی نیستی /nisti/ /nist/+/i/ you are not
نیست ـ نیست /nist/ /nist/+- he/she is not
بن مضارع پسوند فعل Verb formula Definition
نیستـ ـیم نیستیم /nistim/ /nist/+/im/ we are not
نیستـ ـید نیستید /nistid/ /nist/+/id/ you are not
نیستـ ـند نیستند /nistand/ /nist/+/and/ they are not

to be Verb

In Persian, each verb has three forms:

– Infinitive
– Present Tense root
– Past Tense root

To make to be verbs in simple present tense we use the following formula: (read from right to left)

Present Tense root + person’s suffix

Present tense root of to be verb is:

هست /hast/

Table of Person’s suffixes

مفرد تلفظ Used for
ـم /-am/ I
ـی /-i/ you [singular]
/-/ he/she
جمع تلفظ Used for
ـیم /-im/ we
ـید /-id/ you [singular]
ـند /-and/ they

To be verbs (simple present tense)

بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
هستـ ـم هستم /hastam/ /hast/+/am/ I am
هستـ ـی هستی /hasti/ /hast/+/i/ you are
هست ـ هست /hast/ /hast/+- he/she is
بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
هستـ ـیم هستیم /hastim/ /hast/+/im/ we are
هستـ ـید هستید /hastid/ /hast/+/id/ you are
هستـ ـند هستند /hastand/ /hast/+/and/ they are

Demonstrative Pronouns

ضمیر اشاره (Demonstrative)

مفرد تلفظ Singular
این /in/ this
آن /ān/ that
جمع تلفظ Plural
اینها /inhā/ these
آنها /ānhā/ those
Note:

It is important to distinguish between “Demonstrative Pronouns” and “Demonstrative Adjectives”.

Demonstrative pronouns substitute nouns when the nouns can be understood from the context and previous sentences.

Example:This is yours.

Whereas, Demonstrative Adjectives are followed by the noun and are used to indicate whether the noun is singular or plural and whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or writer.

Example:This book is yours.

In Persian, Demonstrative Pronouns must be used the same way as they are used in English, i.e. singular pronoun for one object, and plural pronoun for more than one object.

اینها را بگیر
/inhā rā begir/
take these

However, Demonstrative Adjectives are used slightly differently. Unlike English, they are ALWAYS used in their singular form, regardless of the following noun.

این کتابها را بگیر
اینها کتابها را بگیر
/in ketābhā rā begir/
take these books

Note:

In English, Personal Pronouns are used for animals, but in Persian Demonstrative Pronouns are always used for referring to animals.

علی یک سگ دارد. من امروز به آن غذا دادم.
/ali yek sag dārad. man emruz be ān qazā dādam/
Ali has a dog. I fed her today.

Videos, Slideshows and Podcasts by Cincopa Wordpress Plugin