Prepositions in Persian

There are two types of prepositions in Persian:

Type 1:

They never occur with “e-link”.

There are only 4 prepositions in Type 1.

واژه تلفظ معنی
در Listen /dar/ in/at
به Listen /be/ to
تا Listen /tā/ until/to [time]
از Listen /az/ from


/man dar Landan hastam/ I am in London.
/man parsāl be ālmān raftam/ I went to Germany last year.
/bāzār 5 bāz ast/ The market is open until 5.
/In rā az Hend xaridi?/ Did you buy it from India?

Type 2:

They might occur with “e-link” when followed by a complement.
There are two sub-classes in Type 2:

Type 2a: prepositions with optional e-link

واژه تلفظ معنی
تو Listen /tu/ in
رو Listen /ru/ on
جلو Listen /jelo/ in front (of)
پهلو Listen /pahlu/ beside/next to
زیر Listen /zir/ under


/man xodkār-e Parker-e to rā tu(-ye) kifam nagozāštam./ I did not put your Parker pen in my bag.
/ru(-ye) divār či nevešti?/ What did you write on the wall?
/man hamiše dar parvāzhāyam pahlu-ye panjare minešinam./ I always sit next to the window in my flights.

Type 2b:prepositions with obligatory e-link

واژه تلفظ معنی
داخل ِ Listen /dāxel-e/ inside
بالای ِ Listen /bālā-ye/ on top of
سر ِ Listen /sar-e/ on top of
پشت ِ Listen /pošt-e/ behind
نزدیک ِ Listen /nazdik-e/ near
پایین ِ Listen /pāin-e/ below
خارج ِ Listen /xārej-e/ outside
بیرون ِ Listen /birun-e/ outside
میان ِ Listen /miān-e/ between
دور ِ Listen /dour-e/ around

/dāxel-e komod rā didi?./ Did you see inside the wardrobe?

/birun-e šahr yek daryāče-ye zibā hast./ There is a beautiful lake outside the city.

* As mentioned before, if the first word ends in a vowel, we will use “ye” instead of “e”.

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2 Responses to“Prepositions in Persian”

  1. نیلوفر کشتیاری says:

    Thank you for the interesting info.I Would be grateful if you could tell me about an online list of Persian prepositions (including the ref. of course).

    Kind Regards,

  2. mim says:

    @ نیلوفر کشتیاری:
    I guess the list provided in the post could be helpful as a reference for the common prepositions, although it is not a comprehensive list and the audio files are not matching.

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