Archive

Archive for June, 2009

Past Imperfective Tense in Persian

What is an Imperfective Tense?
The imperfective aspect refers to an action that is considered as ongoing, habitual, or repeated.

How to make a Past Imperfective Verb in Persian
Making a Past Imperfective verb in Persian is quite easy. You just need to add “mi” to the beginning of the Past Simple form of the verb.

mi+ Past Root + Person’s suffix

Although there is not an exact equivalent for this tense in English, Past Progressive (Past Continuous) tense can be considered as the closest tense in English to Past Imperfective Tense in Persian.

I was playing tennis yesterday.
/man diruz tennis bāzi mikardam./

When I was young, I was travelling a lot.
/vaqti javān budam, xeyli mosāferat miraftam./


(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می رفت م می رفتم
می رفت ی می رفتی
می رفت می رفت
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می رفت یم می رفتیم
می رفت ید می رفتید
می رفت ند می رفتند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi raft am miraftam
mi raft i mirafti
mi raft miraft
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi raft im miraftim
mi raft id miraftid
mi raft and miraftand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ past tense root: nušid
To see: /didan/ past tense root: ?
To read: /xāndan/ past tense root: ?
To say: /goftan/ past tense root: ?
To jump: /paridan/ past tense root: ?

How to ask a question in Persian-1

Yes/No Questions

In Yes/No questions the answer is either yes or no. For instance, “Did you see Tom?” is a Yes/No question in English.

To make a Yes/No question in English we need an auxiliary verb (e.g. do, did, have, etc.) which normally comes in the beginning of the sentence.

Did you see Tom?

In Persian we do not need to change the structure of the statement in order to make a question. All we need to do is put the word “āyā” in the beginning of the sentence.

Statament: man be madrese raftam. (I went to school.)
Question: āyā to be madrese rafti? (Did you go to school?)

Statament: Ali ruznāme xarid. (Ali bought a newspaper.)
Question: āyā Ali ruznāme xarid? (Did Ali buy a newspaper?)

Statament: Sara dar London zendegi mikonad. (Sara lives in London.)
Question: āyā Sara dar London zendegi mikonad? (Does Sara live in London?)

More examples:

Question: āyā (to) xodkār-e man rā didi? (Did you see my pen?)
Na, man xodkār-e to rā nadidam. (No, I didn’t see your pen)

Question: āyā (to) Tom Cruise rā mishenāsi? (Do you know Tom Cruise?)
bale, man Tom Cruise rā mishenāsam (Yes, I know Tom Cruise)

Question: āyā (to) dišab mosābeqe-ye football ra didi? (Did you watch the match last noght?)
Na, ān ra nadidam. āyā mosābeqe-ye xubi bud? (No, was that a good game?)
āre, āli bud. Perspolis 2-0 bord. (Yes, that was great. Perspolis won 2-0)

Vocabulary – Job interview

واژه تلفظ معنی
چند Listen /čand/ many
زبان Listen /zabān/ language/tongue
زبان مادری Listen /zabān-e mādari/ mother tongue
درست Listen /dorost/ right;correct
یک کمی Listen /yek kami/ a little bit
شکسته نفسی می کنید Listen /šekaste nafsi mikonid/ you are being modest
لطف دارید Listen /lotf dārid/ you are being kind
چند سال Listen /čand sāl/ how many years
در مجموع Listen /dar majmoo/ in total
مکاتبات Listen /mokātebāt/ correspondence
مساله ای نیست Listen /mas’alei nist/ no problem
کدام Listen /kodām/ which
آسان/آسانتر/آسانترین Listen /rāhat/rāhattar/rāhattarin/ easy/easier/easiest
آسان/آسانتر/آسانترین Listen /asān/asāntar/asāntarin/ easy/easier/easiest
مطمئنا Listen /motma’ennan/ certainly
مطمئنا Listen /hatman/ certainly
برای اینکه Listen /čon/ because
مخصوصا Listen /maxsusan/ especially
اگر Listen /agar/ if
فرهنگ Listen /farhang/ culture
فرهنگ لغت Listen /farhang-e loqat/ dictionary
آگهی Listen /āgahi/ advertisement
کجا Listen /kojā/ where
چرا Listen /čerā/ why
محلی Listen /mahalli/ local
روزنامه محلی Listen /ruznāme-ye mahalli/ local newspaper
دلیل Listen /dalil/ reason
به 2 دلیل Listen /be 2 dalil/ dor 2 reasons
شرکت Listen /šerkat/ company, firm
اول Listen /avval/ first
دوم Listen /dovom/ second
سوم Listen /sevom/ third
سوال Listen /so’āl/ question
جمله Listen /jomle/ sentence

Verbs

واژه تلفظ معنی
داشتن Listen /dāštan/ to have
ترجمه کردن Listen /tarjome kardan/ to translate
خواستن Listen /xāstan/ to want
فهمیدن Listen /fahmidan/ to understand
توضیح دادن Listen /tozih dādan/ to explain

A Job Interview in Persian

A Job Interview in Persian

مدیر: سلام Listen salām Manager:
پریسا: سلام Listen salām Parisā:
مدیر: اینجا نوشته اید که چند تا زبان بلدید. درست است؟ Listen Injā nevešteid ke čand tā zabān baladid. dorost ast? Manager:
پریسا: بله. انگلیسی که زبان مادریم است. فرانسه هم بلدم. یک کمی هم فارسی می دانم. Listen bale. engelisi ke zabāne madariam ast. farānse ham baladam. yek kami ham farsi midānam. Parisā:
مدیر: شکسته نفسی می کنید. فارسی شما خیلی خوب است. Listen šekaste nafsi mikonid. farsi-e shoxoma xeyli xub ast. Manager:
پریسا: لطف دارید. Listen lotf dārid. Parisā:
مدیر: چند سال است که فارسی می خوانید؟ Listen čand sāl ast ke farsi mixānid? Manager:
پریسا: در مجموع 5 سال است که فارسی می خوانم. 1 سال در تهران، و 4 سال در لس آنجلس. Listen dar majmu 5 sāl ast ke farsi mixānam. 1 sāl dar Tehran, va 4 sāl dar Los Angeles. Parisā:
مدیر: تا به حال کتابی ترجمه کرده اید؟ Listen tā be hāl ketābi tarjome kardeid? Manager:
پریسا: راستش را بخواهید خیر. یعنی مکاتبات بازرگانی ترجمه کرده ام، اما کتاب خیر. Listen rāstash rā bexāhid xeir. yani mokātebāt-e bāzargāni tarjome kardeam, amma ketab xeir. Parisā:
مدیر: مساله ای نیست. کدام برایتان راحت تر است؟ ترجمه از فارسی به انگلیسی؟ یا از انگلیسی به فارسی؟ Listen mas’alei nist. kodām barāyetān rāhattar ast? tarjome az farsi be engelisi ya az engelisi be farsi? Manager:
پریسا: مطممئنا از فارسی به انگلیسی. چون انگلیسی زبان مادریم است.مخصوصا اگر فرهنگ لغت داشته باشم ترجمه به انگلیسی کار بسیار آسانی است. Listen motma’ennan az farsi be engelisi. čon engelisis zabāne mādariam ast.
maxsusan agar farhang-e loqat dāšte bašam tarjome be engelisi kāre besiār asāni ast.
Parisā:
مدیر: آگهی این کار را کجا دیدید؟چرا می خواهید برای این شرکت کار کنید؟ Listen āgahie in kār ra kojā didid?čerā mixāhid barāye in šerkat kār konid? Manager:
پریسا: من آگهی شما را در روزنامه ی محلی دیدم.به دو دلیل می خواهم در شرکت شما کار کنم: اول این که به ترجمه کردن علاقه دارم. دوم این که دوست دارم چند سال در ایران زندگی کنم. Listen man āgahi-e šomā ra dar ruznāme-ye mahalli didam.be 2 dalil mixāham dar šerkat-e šomā kār konam: avval inke be tarjome kardan alāqe dāram. dovom in ke dust dāram čand sāl dar Iran zendegi konamm. Parisā:
مدیر: بسیار خوب. شما اگر سوالی دارید بپرسید. Listen besiār xub. šomā agar so’āli dārid beporsid. Manager:
پریسا: بله. یک جمله در فرم را نمی فهمم. ممکن است برایم توضیح دهید؟ Listen bale. yek jomle dar form ra nemifahmam. momken ast baryam tozih dahid? Parisā:
مدیر: حتما. Listen hatman. Manager:

Translation:

مدیر: Hello Listen salām Manager:
پریسا: Hello Listen salām Parisā:
مدیر: You have written here that you know many languages. Is it correct? Listen Injā nevešteid ke čand tā zabān baladid. dorost ast? Manager:
پریسا: Yes. English is my mother tongue. I know French. I also know a little bit Persian. Listen bale. engelisi ke zabāne madariam ast. farānse ham baladam. yek kami ham farsi midānam. Parisā:
مدیر: You are being modest. Your Persian is very good. Listen šekaste nafsi mikonid. farsi-e shoxoma xeyli xub ast. Manager:
پریسا: That’s kind of you. Listen lotf dārid. Parisā:
مدیر: How many years you have studied Persian? Listen čand sāl ast ke farsi mixānid? Manager:
پریسا: It has been 5 years in total that I have studied Persian. Listen dar majmu 5 sāl ast ke farsi mixānam. 1 sāl dar Tehran, va 4 sāl dar Los Angeles. Parisā:
مدیر: Have you ever translated a book? Listen tā be hāl ketābi tarjome kardeid? Manager:
پریسا: To be honest I haven’t. I mean I have translated business correspondence, but not a book. Listen rāstash rā bexāhid xeir. yani mokātebāt-e bāzargāni tarjome kardeam, amma ketab xeir. Parisā:
مدیر: No problem. Which one is easier for you? Translation from Persian to English or from English to Persian? Listen mas’alei nist. kodām barāyetān rāhattar ast? tarjome az farsi be engelisi ya az engelisi be farsi? Manager:
پریسا: Certainly from Persian to English, as English is my mother tongue.

Especially if I have a dictionary, it will be very easy to translate to English.

Listen motma’ennan az farsi be engelisi. čon engelisis zabāne mādariam ast.

maxsusan agar farhang-e loqat dāšte bašam tarjome be engelisi kāre besiār asāni ast.

Parisā:
مدیر: Where did you see the advert for this job?

Why do you want to work for this company?

Listen āgahie in kār ra kojā didid?čerā mixāhid barāye in šerkat kār konid? Manager:
پریسا: I saw your advert in the local newspaper.

I would like to work for your company for two reasons: First, I love translation. Second, I would like to live in Iran for a couple of years.

Listen man āgahi-e šomā ra dar ruznāme-ye mahalli didam.be 2 dalil mixāham dar šerkat-e šomā kār konam: avval inke be tarjome kardan alāqe dāram. dovom in ke dust dāram čand sāl dar Iran zendegi konamm. Parisā:
مدیر: Excellent. If you have any questions, please ask. Listen besiār xub. šomā agar so’āli dārid beporsid. Manager:
پریسا: Yes, there is a sentence in the form that I don’t understand. May you explain it to me? Listen bale. yek jomle dar form ra nemifahmam. momken ast baryam tozih dahid? Parisā:
مدیر: Certainly. Listen hatman. Manager:

Videos, Slideshows and Podcasts by Cincopa Wordpress Plugin