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Subjunctive mood in Action-2

As mentioned in previous post, Subjunctive mood in Persian is used in two occasions. This mood is used when more than one verb is used, and in the case of uncertainty (i.e. after šāyad (maybe), agar (if), bāyad (must) and so on. The first usage of this mood was covered in the previous post, and the latter is explained in this post:

2. In the case of uncertainty

(i.e. after šāyad (maybe), agar (if), bāyad (must) and so on.

a- Present

– May / Might

šāyad

من شاید امروز به مدرسه بروم

/man šāyad emruz be madrese(h) beravam/
I might go to school today.

Note: There is no negative form for šāyad. To make the above sentence negative, we make the Subjunctive mood verb negative by replacing /be-/ with /na-/:

من شاید امروز به مدرسه نروم

/man šāyad emruz be madrese(h) naravam/
I might not go to school today.

– Should / Have to / Must / Ought to

bāyad

حالت خوب نیست. تو باید به دکتر بروی.

/hālet xub nist. to bāyad be doktor beravi./
You are not ok. You have to go to the doctor. (=You have to see a doctor)

Note: Negative form for Bāyad is Nabāyad. To make the above sentence negative we change /bāyad/ to /nabāyad/ and do not touch the rest of sentence.

حالت خوب نیست. تو نباید به مدرسه بروی

/hālet xub nist. to nabāyad be madrese(h) beravi./
You are not OK. You must not go to school.

b- Past

The subjunctive mood is not used for šāyad and Bāyad in past tense.

Past Imperfective form of the verb comes after šāyad and Bāyad in Past Tenses.

تو باید به او می گفتی

/to bāyad be u migofti/
You should have told her.

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Subjunctive mood in Action-1

Broadly speaking, the subjunctive form [be-/bo-] is used:

1- If there are more than one verb in a sentence (no matter past or present) the following verbs will be in subjunctive form.

2. in the case of uncertainty (i.e. after shāyad (maybe), agar (if), bāyad (must) and so on.

1- More than one verb

In other words, when you have to use infinitive form (“to VERB”) or ing form (“VERBing) for the following verbs in English, you have to use subjunctive form (“be-“) of verb in Persian.

می خواهم سیبی بخورم.

Present: “Mixāham sibi boxoram”
(I want to eat an apple)

می خواستم سیبی بخورم.

Past: “Mixāstam sibi boxoram”
(I wanted to eat an apple)

In the past tense, you can also use”Xāstam” instead of “Mixāstam” for “I wanted”

Note: xāstam and mixāstam are two different tenses. xāstam means “I wanted” mixāstam means “I used to want”.

Examples:

I like/love VERBing
من دوست دارم زبان یاد بگیرم.
“man dust dāram Farsi yād begirem” (“I love learning Farsi”)

I tried to VERB
من تلاش کردم حقیقت را به او بگویم.
/man talāš kardam haqiqat rā be u beguyam/
I tried to tell him/her the truth.

I hate VERBing
من بدم می آید جمعه ها کار بکنم.
/man dadam miāyad Jom’ehā kār bekonam./
I hate working on Fridays.

I started/finished VERBing
من پارسال شروع کردم زبان فارسی را یاد بگیرم.
/man pārsāl šoru kardam zabān-e Farsi rā yād begiram/
I started learning Persian language last year.

An Introduction to Subjunctive mood in Persian

The subjunctive mood is a verb mood typically used in dependent clauses to express wishes, commands, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, necessity, or statements that are usually contrary to fact at present.

The subjunctive mood is Persian is made of the subjunctive form of the verb.

be + Present root

بـ + بن مضارع

Examples

Examples of subjunctive form for first person:

b(e) + kon (am)
b(e) + xor (am)
b(e) + rav (am)
b(e) + nush (am)
b(e) + nevis (am)

Note:

If the first letter of the Present root was a vowel (except for /i/), bi would be used instead of be:

bi + aay (am)
bi + aamuz (am)

If the first letter was /i/: (istaadan)

be + ist (am)

Exception:
The Subjunctive form of to be verb does not have any subjunctive prefix (be or bi):
baasham/baashi/baashad
baashim/baashid/baashand

Contracted forms of to be verb

In an informal situation, written or spoken, using contracted form of to be verbs is recommended. However, similar to English, it is recommended not using contracted form of to be verbs in a formal situation.

Contracted forms of to be verb are as follow. Having read them, you might have realised that they are very similar to person suffix for present tense studied in this post. The only exception is in third single person.

تلفظ Used for
ـم /-am/ I
ـی /-i/ you [singular]
است* /ast/ he/she
جمع تلفظ Used for
ـیم /-im/ we
ـید /-id/ you [singular]
ـند /-and/ they

Example:

بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
خوبـ ـم خوبم /xubam/ /xub/+/am/ I‘m fine
خوبـ ـی خوبی /xubi/ /xub/+/i/ you‘re fine
خوب است* خوب است* /xub ast/ /xub/+/ast/ he/she‘s fine
بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
خوبـ ـیم خوبیم /xubim/ /xub/+/im/ we‘re fine
خوبـ ـید خوبید /xubid/ /xub/+/id/ you‘re fine
خوبـ ـند خوبند /xuband/ /xub/+/and/ they‘re fine

Common Verbs in Persian- Set 1

مصدر Present root Past root Infinitive
کردن Listen /kon/ /kard/ to do
دادن Listen /dah/ /dād/ to give
داشتن Listen /dār/ /dāšt/ to have
زدن Listen /zan/ /zad/ to hit
خوردن Listen /xor/ /xord/ to eat
رفتن Listen /rav/ /raft/ to go
آمدن Listen /āy/ /āmad/ to come
آوردن Listen /āvar/ /āvard/ to bring
بردن Listen /bar/ /bord/ to take
دیدن Listen /bin/ /did/ to see
شنیدن Listen /shenav/ /šenid/ to hear
بوییدن Listen /buy/ /buid/ to smell
چشیدن Listen /češ/ /češid/ to taste
لمس کردن Listen /lams kon/ /lams kard/ to touch

Past Simple verbs in Persian (Negative)

Making negative verbs in Past Simple is similar to Negative Present Simple tense.
The only difference is, in Present Simple you add NE (ن) in the beginning of the verb, while in Past Simple, you add NA (ن) in the beginning of the verb.

In fact in both you add the same letter (i.e. /n/) but with different following vowel.


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نخورد م نخوردم
نخورد ی نخوردی
نخورد نخورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نخورد یم نخوردیم
نخورد ید نخوردید
نخورد ند نخوردند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
naxord am naxordam
naxord i naxordi
naxord naxord
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
naxord im naxordim
naxord id naxordid
naxord and naxordand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ past tense root: nušid
To see: /didan/ past tense root: ?
To read: /xāndan/ past tense root: ?
To say: /goftan/ past tense root: ?

Past Simple verbs in Persian

The structure of past simple verbs in Persian is very similar to present simple verbs.
In order to generate a past simple verb in Persian, we are taking steps introduced in this lesson.

Please note that in Past tenses, we need to use Past Tense root of the verb.

  1. Tense prefix (WHEN?)
  2. Past Simple tense has no Tense Prefix. It means that the verb starts with Past Tense root.

  3. Past tense root (WHAT?)
  4. Making past tense root in Persian is very easy.

    All infinitives in Persian, end in /an/ (ن). Not to mention that the letter “a”, is a vowel and is not an actual letter in Persian script.

    All you have to is, drop N from the end of the infinitive and you will have the Past tense root.

    Example:

    Infinitive: To Eat /xordan/ خوردن

    Past tense root: /xord/ خورد

  5. Person suffix

Introduced in this lesson

Exception: Singular Third person does not take its Person’s suffix (i.e. “D”).

All infinitives in Persian end in either /DaN/ or /TaN/, while majority of them end in /DaN/. It means that if the Singular Third person’s suffix was applied to Past Simple verb, the verb would be:

/xordad/ خوردد

The example above illustrates that the same letter /d/ (د) would be repeated at the end of the verb. Repetitive letters do not sound very nice in Persian language, and possibly due to this hypothesis, the repetitive letter of /d/ has been dropped in order to make the verb easier to be pronounced.


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
خورد م خوردم
خورد ی خوردی
خورد خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
خورد یم خوردیم
خورد ید خوردید
خورد ند خوردند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
xord am xordam
xord i xordi
xord xord
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
xord im xordim
xord id xordid
xord and xordand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ past tense root: nušid
To see: /didan/ past tense root: ?
To read: /xāndan/ past tense root: ?
To say: /goftan/ past tense root: ?

Present Simple verbs in Persian (Negative)

Making negative verbs in Present Simple is very easy.

What you have to is  add NE (ن) in the beginning of the verb.


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نمی خور م نمی خورم
نمی خور ی نمی خوری
نمی خور د نمی خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نمی خور یم نمی خوریم
نمی خور ید نمی خورید
نمی خور ند نمی خورند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
nemi xor am nemixoram
nemi xor i nemixori
nemi xor ad nemixorad
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
nemi xor im nemixorim
nemi xor id nemixorid
nemi xor and nemixorand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ imperative form: /benuš/
To see: /didan/ imperative form: /bebin/
To read: /xāndan/ imperative form: /bexān/
To say: /goftan/ imperative form: /begu/

Present Simple verbs in Persian

In order to generate a present simple verb, we are taking steps introduced in this lesson. Hence, we need to identify three elements which make a verb in this tense:

  1. Tense prefix (WHEN?)
  2. می /mi/

  3. Verb tense root (WHAT?)
  4. In most verbs, drop the letter ب and its following vowel /b[a]/ or /b[e]/ or /b[o]/from the beginning of imperative form*

    Example:

    Infinitive: To Eat /xordan/ خوردن

    Imperative: Eat /boxor/ بخور

    Present tense root: /xor/ خور → بخور

    * Almost all of imperative verbs start with /b/

  5. Person suffix

Introduced in this lesson


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور م می خورم
می خور ی می خوری
می خور د می خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور یم می خوریم
می خور ید می خورید
می خور ند می خورند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor am mixoram
mi xor i mixori
mi xor ad mixorad
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor im mixorim
mi xor id mixorid
mi xor and mixorand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ imperative form: /benuš/
To see: /didan/ imperative form: /bebin/
To read: /xāndan/ imperative form: /bexān/
To say: /goftan/ imperative form: /begu/

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