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Prepositions in Persian

There are two types of prepositions in Persian:

Type 1:

They never occur with “e-link”.

There are only 4 prepositions in Type 1.

واژه تلفظ معنی
در Listen /dar/ in/at
به Listen /be/ to
تا Listen /tā/ until/to [time]
از Listen /az/ from

Examples:

/man dar Landan hastam/ I am in London.
/man parsāl be ālmān raftam/ I went to Germany last year.
/bāzār 5 bāz ast/ The market is open until 5.
/In rā az Hend xaridi?/ Did you buy it from India?

Type 2:

They might occur with “e-link” when followed by a complement.
There are two sub-classes in Type 2:

Type 2a: prepositions with optional e-link

واژه تلفظ معنی
تو Listen /tu/ in
رو Listen /ru/ on
جلو Listen /jelo/ in front (of)
پهلو Listen /pahlu/ beside/next to
زیر Listen /zir/ under

Examples:

/man xodkār-e Parker-e to rā tu(-ye) kifam nagozāštam./ I did not put your Parker pen in my bag.
/ru(-ye) divār či nevešti?/ What did you write on the wall?
/man hamiše dar parvāzhāyam pahlu-ye panjare minešinam./ I always sit next to the window in my flights.

Type 2b:prepositions with obligatory e-link

واژه تلفظ معنی
داخل ِ Listen /dāxel-e/ inside
بالای ِ Listen /bālā-ye/ on top of
سر ِ Listen /sar-e/ on top of
پشت ِ Listen /pošt-e/ behind
نزدیک ِ Listen /nazdik-e/ near
پایین ِ Listen /pāin-e/ below
خارج ِ Listen /xārej-e/ outside
بیرون ِ Listen /birun-e/ outside
میان ِ Listen /miān-e/ between
دور ِ Listen /dour-e/ around

/dāxel-e komod rā didi?./ Did you see inside the wardrobe?

/birun-e šahr yek daryāče-ye zibā hast./ There is a beautiful lake outside the city.

* As mentioned before, if the first word ends in a vowel, we will use “ye” instead of “e”.

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