As you might have realised the letters introduced in the Persian Alphabet post, mainly stand for the consonants apart from three vowels represented by letters (ا – و – ی )
In Persian vowels are two types:
Long VowelsRepresented by LETTERS
Short VowelsRepresented by SPECIAL SYMBOLS written above or below the letters
They are pronounced as (from right to left):
Note: These symbols may be used only in reference books or dictionaries and in an ordinary text (e.g. newspapers, the internet) you will not see them. The reader has to recogise and pronounce them from their background knowledge.