In Persian, any verb can be interpreted independent of other parts of the sentence. This means that if a verb is extracted from the sentence, it can answer three questions about the action:
These questions are answered by three elements, which usually come in this order:
- Tense prefix (can be absent)
- Verb tense root
- Person suffix:
(read from right to left)
|Tense prefix||+||Verb tense root||+||person’s suffix|
Tense prefix (WHEN?) [can be absent in some tenses]
This prefix is the same across each tense, regardless of the person for which the verb is used.
Verb tense root(WHAT?)
In Persian, you need to learn 2 forms of each verb:
The root for different tenses (e.g. present simple, past perfect) can be easily generated from these two forms. This topic will be expanded in next lessons under each tense lesson.
You learned person suffixes for to-be verbs here. The person suffixes for other verbs are precisely the same as person suffixes for to be verbs, except for singular third person (he/she).
The person suffix for singular third person (he/she) is /d/. However, some tenses do not need any person suffix for singular third person (he/she). Hence the universal person suffix table will be as below:
|د یا -*||/-d/ or /NONE/*||he/she|
* in some tenses it is dropped, but in others it is /-d/