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Posts Tagged ‘زمان حال’

Present Simple verbs in Persian

In order to generate a present simple verb, we are taking steps introduced in this lesson. Hence, we need to identify three elements which make a verb in this tense:

  1. Tense prefix (WHEN?)
  2. می /mi/

  3. Verb tense root (WHAT?)
  4. In most verbs, drop the letter ب and its following vowel /b[a]/ or /b[e]/ or /b[o]/from the beginning of imperative form*

    Example:

    Infinitive: To Eat /xordan/ خوردن

    Imperative: Eat /boxor/ بخور

    Present tense root: /xor/ خور → بخور

    * Almost all of imperative verbs start with /b/

  5. Person suffix

Introduced in this lesson


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور م می خورم
می خور ی می خوری
می خور د می خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور یم می خوریم
می خور ید می خورید
می خور ند می خورند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor am mixoram
mi xor i mixori
mi xor ad mixorad
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor im mixorim
mi xor id mixorid
mi xor and mixorand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ imperative form: /benuš/
To see: /didan/ imperative form: /bebin/
To read: /xāndan/ imperative form: /bexān/
To say: /goftan/ imperative form: /begu/

to be Verb

In Persian, each verb has three forms:

- Infinitive
- Present Tense root
- Past Tense root

To make to be verbs in simple present tense we use the following formula: (read from right to left)

Present Tense root + person’s suffix

Present tense root of to be verb is:

هست /hast/

Table of Person’s suffixes

مفرد تلفظ Used for
ـم /-am/ I
ـی /-i/ you [singular]
- /-/ he/she
جمع تلفظ Used for
ـیم /-im/ we
ـید /-id/ you [singular]
ـند /-and/ they

To be verbs (simple present tense)

بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
هستـ ـم هستم /hastam/ /hast/+/am/ I am
هستـ ـی هستی /hasti/ /hast/+/i/ you are
هست ـ هست /hast/ /hast/+- he/she is
بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
هستـ ـیم هستیم /hastim/ /hast/+/im/ we are
هستـ ـید هستید /hastid/ /hast/+/id/ you are
هستـ ـند هستند /hastand/ /hast/+/and/ they are

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