Archive

Posts Tagged ‘فعل’

Contracted forms of to be verb

In an informal situation, written or spoken, using contracted form of to be verbs is recommended. However, similar to English, it is recommended not using contracted form of to be verbs in a formal situation.

Contracted forms of to be verb are as follow. Having read them, you might have realised that they are very similar to person suffix for present tense studied in this post. The only exception is in third single person.

تلفظ Used for
ـم /-am/ I
ـی /-i/ you [singular]
است* /ast/ he/she
جمع تلفظ Used for
ـیم /-im/ we
ـید /-id/ you [singular]
ـند /-and/ they

Example:

بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
خوبـ ـم خوبم /xubam/ /xub/+/am/ I‘m fine
خوبـ ـی خوبی /xubi/ /xub/+/i/ you‘re fine
خوب است* خوب است* /xub ast/ /xub/+/ast/ he/she‘s fine
بن مضارع پسوند فعل تلفظ formula Definition
خوبـ ـیم خوبیم /xubim/ /xub/+/im/ we‘re fine
خوبـ ـید خوبید /xubid/ /xub/+/id/ you‘re fine
خوبـ ـند خوبند /xuband/ /xub/+/and/ they‘re fine

Past Simple verbs in Persian (Negative)

Making negative verbs in Past Simple is similar to Negative Present Simple tense.
The only difference is, in Present Simple you add NE (ن) in the beginning of the verb, while in Past Simple, you add NA (ن) in the beginning of the verb.

In fact in both you add the same letter (i.e. /n/) but with different following vowel.


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نخورد م نخوردم
نخورد ی نخوردی
نخورد نخورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
نخورد یم نخوردیم
نخورد ید نخوردید
نخورد ند نخوردند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
naxord am naxordam
naxord i naxordi
naxord naxord
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
naxord im naxordim
naxord id naxordid
naxord and naxordand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ past tense root: nušid
To see: /didan/ past tense root: ?
To read: /xāndan/ past tense root: ?
To say: /goftan/ past tense root: ?

Past Simple verbs in Persian

The structure of past simple verbs in Persian is very similar to present simple verbs.
In order to generate a past simple verb in Persian, we are taking steps introduced in this lesson.

Please note that in Past tenses, we need to use Past Tense root of the verb.

  1. Tense prefix (WHEN?)
  2. Past Simple tense has no Tense Prefix. It means that the verb starts with Past Tense root.

  3. Past tense root (WHAT?)
  4. Making past tense root in Persian is very easy.

    All infinitives in Persian, end in /an/ (ن). Not to mention that the letter “a”, is a vowel and is not an actual letter in Persian script.

    All you have to is, drop N from the end of the infinitive and you will have the Past tense root.

    Example:

    Infinitive: To Eat /xordan/ خوردن

    Past tense root: /xord/ خورد

  5. Person suffix

Introduced in this lesson

Exception: Singular Third person does not take its Person’s suffix (i.e. “D”).

All infinitives in Persian end in either /DaN/ or /TaN/, while majority of them end in /DaN/. It means that if the Singular Third person’s suffix was applied to Past Simple verb, the verb would be:

/xordad/ خوردد

The example above illustrates that the same letter /d/ (د) would be repeated at the end of the verb. Repetitive letters do not sound very nice in Persian language, and possibly due to this hypothesis, the repetitive letter of /d/ has been dropped in order to make the verb easier to be pronounced.


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
خورد م خوردم
خورد ی خوردی
خورد خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
خورد یم خوردیم
خورد ید خوردید
خورد ند خوردند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
xord am xordam
xord i xordi
xord xord
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
xord im xordim
xord id xordid
xord and xordand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ past tense root: nušid
To see: /didan/ past tense root: ?
To read: /xāndan/ past tense root: ?
To say: /goftan/ past tense root: ?

Present Simple verbs in Persian

In order to generate a present simple verb, we are taking steps introduced in this lesson. Hence, we need to identify three elements which make a verb in this tense:

  1. Tense prefix (WHEN?)
  2. می /mi/

  3. Verb tense root (WHAT?)
  4. In most verbs, drop the letter ب and its following vowel /b[a]/ or /b[e]/ or /b[o]/from the beginning of imperative form*

    Example:

    Infinitive: To Eat /xordan/ خوردن

    Imperative: Eat /boxor/ بخور

    Present tense root: /xor/ خور → بخور

    * Almost all of imperative verbs start with /b/

  5. Person suffix

Introduced in this lesson


Example:

(Right to Left) ←

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور م می خورم
می خور ی می خوری
می خور د می خورد
Tense Prefix
Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
می خور یم می خوریم
می خور ید می خورید
می خور ند می خورند

(Left to Right) →

Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor am mixoram
mi xor i mixori
mi xor ad mixorad
Tense Prefix Tense Root Person Suffix Verb
mi xor im mixorim
mi xor id mixorid
mi xor and mixorand

Can you do the same for these verbs:
To drink: /nušidan/ imperative form: /benuš/
To see: /didan/ imperative form: /bebin/
To read: /xāndan/ imperative form: /bexān/
To say: /goftan/ imperative form: /begu/

Videos, Slideshows and Podcasts by Cincopa Wordpress Plugin